Cranes and Derricks in Construction

OSHA Training Requirements - Cranes and Derricks in Construction

This website is not the official or final authority to determine OSHA compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves, and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. Because OSHA regulations are constantly being added, deleted, and/or revised, you must not rely on this website as the official or final authority of OSHA training requirements; refer to the official OSHA regulations available on OSHA’s website (osha.gov).  -  See disclaimers.

 

1926.1400 – 1926.1442 - Cranes & Derricks in Construction


1926.1401 – Definitions Applicable to This Subpart

A/D director (Assembly/Disassembly director) means an individual who meets this subpart's requirements for an A/D director, irrespective of the person's formal job title or whether the person is non-management or management personnel.

Certified welder means a welder who meets nationally recognized certification requirements applicable to the task being performed.

Competent person means one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.

Dedicated spotter (power lines): To be considered a dedicated spotter, the requirements of § 1926.1428 (Signal person qualifications) must be met and his/her sole responsibility is to watch the separation between the power line and the equipment, load line and load (including rigging and lifting accessories), and ensure through communication with the operator that the applicable minimum approach distance is not breached.

Procedures include, but are not limited to: Instructions, diagrams, recommendations, warnings, specifications, protocols and limitations.

Qualified evaluator (not a third party) means a person employed by the signal person's employer who has demonstrated that he/she is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.

Qualified evaluator (third party) means an entity that, due to its independence and expertise, has demonstrated that it is competent in accurately assessing whether individuals meet the Qualification Requirements in this subpart for a signal person.

Qualified person means a person who, by possession of a recognized degree, certificate, or professional standing, or who by extensive knowledge, training and experience, successfully demonstrated the ability to solve/resolve problems relating to the subject matter, the work, or the project.

Qualified rigger is a rigger who meets the criteria for a qualified person.

 

1926.1402 – Ground Conditions

(c) - The controlling entity must:

(2) - Inform the user of the equipment and the operator of the location of hazards beneath the equipment set-up area (such as voids, tanks, utilities) if those hazards are identified in documents (such as site drawings, as-built drawings, and soil analyses) that are in the possession of the controlling entity (whether at the site or off-site) or the hazards are otherwise known to that controlling entity.

(e) - If the A/D director or the operator determines that ground conditions do not meet the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section, that person's employer must have a discussion with the controlling entity regarding the ground preparations that are needed so that, with the use of suitable supporting materials/devices (if necessary), the requirements in paragraph (b) of this section can be met.

 

1926.1404 - Assembly/Disassembly--general requirements (applies to all assembly and disassembly operations).

(a) - Supervision--competent-qualified person.

(1) - Assembly/disassembly must be directed by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person, or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons ("A/D director").

(2) - Where the assembly/disassembly is being performed by only one person, that person must meet the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person. For purposes of this standard, that person is considered the A/D director.

(b) - Knowledge of procedures. The A/D director must understand the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures.

(c) - Review of procedures. The A/D director must review the applicable assembly/disassembly procedures immediately prior to the commencement of assembly/disassembly unless the A/D director understands the procedures and has applied them to the same type and configuration of equipment (including accessories, if any).

(d) - Crew instructions.

(1) - Before commencing assembly/disassembly operations, the A/D director must ensure that the crew members understand all of the following:

(i) - Their tasks.

(ii) - The hazards associated with their tasks.

(iii) - The hazardous positions/locations that they need to avoid.

(2) - During assembly/disassembly operations, before a crew member takes on a different task, or when adding new personnel during the operations, the requirements in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (d)(1)(iii) of this section must be met.

(e) - Protecting assembly/disassembly crew members out of operator view.

(1) - Before a crew member goes to a location that is out of view of the operator and is either in, on, or under the equipment, or near the equipment (or load) where the crew member could be injured by movement of the equipment (or load), the crew member must inform the operator that he/she is going to that location.

(m) - Components and configuration.

(1) - The selection of components, and configuration of the equipment, that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment must be in accordance with:

(i) - Manufacturer instructions, prohibitions, limitations, and specifications. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must approve, in writing, the selection and configuration of components; or

(ii) - Approved modifications that meet the requirements of § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications).

(r) - Rigging. In addition to following the requirements in 29 CFR 1926.251 and other requirements in this and other standards applicable to rigging, when rigging is used for assembly/disassembly, the employer must ensure that:

(1) - The rigging work is done by a qualified rigger.

 

1926.1406 - Assembly/Disassembly--employer procedures--general requirements.

(b) - Qualified person. Employer procedures must be developed by a qualified person.

 

1926.1407 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)--assembly and disassembly.

(b) - Preventing encroachment/electrocution. Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2), or Option (3) of this section, all of the following requirements must be met:

(1) - Conduct a planning meeting with the Assembly/Disassembly director (A/D director), operator, assembly/disassembly crew and the other workers who will be in the assembly/disassembly area to review the location of the power line(s) and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.

(3) - At least one of the following additional measures must be in place. The measure selected from this list must be effective in preventing encroachment.  The additional measures are:

(i) - Use a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the equipment operator. The dedicated spotter must:

(A) - Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).

(B) - Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.

(C) - Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.

(D) - Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.

 

1926.1408 - Power line safety (up to 350 kV)--equipment operations.

(b) - Preventing encroachment/electrocution. Where encroachment precautions are required under Option (2) or Option (3) of this section, all of the following requirements must be met:

(1) - Conduct a planning meeting with the operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load to review the location of the power line(s), and the steps that will be implemented to prevent encroachment/electrocution.

(3) - Erect and maintain an elevated warning line, barricade, or line of signs, in view of the operator, equipped with flags or similar high-visibility markings, at 20 feet from the power line (if using Option (2) of this section) or at the minimum approach distance under Table A (see § 1926.1408) (if using Option (3) of this section). If the operator is unable to see the elevated warning line, a dedicated spotter must be used as described in § 1926.1408(b)(4)(ii) in addition to implementing one of the measures described in § § 1926.1408(b)(4)(i), (iii), (iv) and (v).

(4) - Implement at least one of the following measures:

(i) - A proximity alarm set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.

(ii) - A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. Where this measure is selected, the dedicated spotter must:

(A) - Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A clearly visible line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).

(B) - Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.

(C) - Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.

(D) - Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.

(iii) - A device that automatically warns the operator when to stop movement, such as a range control warning device. Such a device must be set to give the operator sufficient warning to prevent encroachment.

(iv) - A device that automatically limits range of movement, set to prevent encroachment.

(v) - An insulating link/device, as defined in § 1926.1401, installed at a point between the end of the load line (or below) and the load.

(g) - Training.

(1) - The employer must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the equipment on all of the following:

(i) - The procedures to be followed in the event of electrical contact with a power line. Such training must include:

(A) - Information regarding the danger of electrocution from the operator simultaneously touching the equipment and the ground.

(B) - The importance to the operator's safety of remaining inside the cab except where there is an imminent danger of fire, explosion, or other emergency that necessitates leaving the cab.

(C) - The safest means of evacuating from equipment that may be energized.

(D) - The danger of the potentially energized zone around the equipment (step potential).

(E) - The need for crew in the area to avoid approaching or touching the equipment and the load.

(F) - Safe clearance distance from power lines.

(ii) - Power lines are presumed to be energized unless the utility owner/operator confirms that the power line has been and continues to be deenergized and visibly grounded at the worksite.

(iii) - Power lines are presumed to be uninsulated unless the utility owner/operator or a registered engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution confirms that a line is insulated.

(iv) - The limitations of an insulating link/device, proximity alarm, and range control (and similar) device, if used.

(v) - The procedures to be followed to properly ground equipment and the limitations of grounding.

(2) - Employees working as dedicated spotters must be trained to enable them to effectively perform their task, including training on the applicable requirements of this section.

(3) - Training under this section must be administered in accordance with § 1926.1430(g).

 

1926.1409 - Power line safety (over 350 kV).

The requirements of § 1926.1407 and § 1926.1408 apply to power lines over 350 kV except:

(a) - For power lines at or below 1000 kV, wherever the distance "20 feet" is specified, the distance "50 feet" must be substituted; and

(b) - For power lines over 1000 kV, the minimum clearance distance must be established by the utility owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution.

 

1926.1410 - Power line safety (all voltages)--equipment operations closer than the Table A zone.

Equipment operations in which any part of the equipment, load line, or load (including rigging and lifting accessories) is closer than the minimum approach distance under Table A of § 1926.1408 to an energized power line is prohibited, except where the employer demonstrates that all of the following requirements are met:

(c) - Minimum clearance distance.

(1) - The power line owner/operator or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution determines the minimum clearance distance that must be maintained to prevent electrical contact in light of the on-site conditions. The factors that must be considered in making this determination include, but are not limited to: Conditions affecting atmospheric conductivity; time necessary to bring the equipment, load line, and load (including rigging and lifting accessories) to a complete stop; wind conditions; degree of sway in the power line; lighting conditions, and other conditions affecting the ability to prevent electrical contact.

(d) - A planning meeting with the employer and utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to electrical power transmission and distribution) is held to determine the procedures that will be followed to prevent electrical contact and electrocution. At a minimum these procedures must include:

(2) - A dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the operator. The dedicated spotter must:

(i) - Be equipped with a visual aid to assist in identifying the minimum clearance distance. Examples of a visual aid include, but are not limited to: A line painted on the ground; a clearly visible line of stanchions; a set of clearly visible line-of-sight landmarks (such as a fence post behind the dedicated spotter and a building corner ahead of the dedicated spotter).

(ii) - Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.

(iii) - Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.

(iv) - Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.

(f) - The equipment user and utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer) meet with the equipment operator and the other workers who will be in the area of the equipment or load to review the procedures that will be implemented to prevent breaching the minimum approach distance established in paragraph (c) of this section and prevent electrocution.

(h) - The utility owner/operator (or registered professional engineer) and all employers of employees involved in the work must identify one person who will direct the implementation of the procedures. The person identified in accordance with this paragraph must direct the implementation of the procedures and must have the authority to stop work at any time to ensure safety.

(m) - The employer must train each operator and crew member assigned to work with the equipment in accordance with § 1926.1408(g).

 

1926.1411 - Power line safety--while traveling under or near power lines with no load.

(b)(4) - Dedicated spotter. If any part of the equipment while traveling will get closer than 20 feet to the power line, the employer must ensure that a dedicated spotter who is in continuous contact with the driver/operator is used. The dedicated spotter must:

(i) - Be positioned to effectively gauge the clearance distance.

(ii) - Where necessary, use equipment that enables the dedicated spotter to communicate directly with the operator.

(iii) - Give timely information to the operator so that the required clearance distance can be maintained.

 

1926.1412 - Inspections.

(a) - Modified equipment.

(1) - Equipment that has had modifications or additions which affect the safe operation of the equipment (such as modifications or additions involving a safety device or operational aid, critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism) or capacity must be inspected by a qualified person after such modifications/additions have been completed, prior to initial use. The inspection must meet all of the following requirements:

(i) - The inspection must assure that the modifications or additions have been done in accordance with the approval obtained pursuant to § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications).

(ii) - The inspection must include functional testing of the equipment.

(b) - Repaired/adjusted equipment.

(1) - Equipment that has had a repair or adjustment that relates to safe operation (such as: A repair or adjustment to a safety device or operator aid, or to a critical part of a control system, power plant, braking system, load-sustaining structural components, load hook, or in-use operating mechanism), must be inspected by a qualified person after such a repair or adjustment has been completed, prior to initial use. The inspection must meet all of the following requirements:

(i) - The qualified person must determine if the repair/adjustment meets manufacturer equipment criteria (where applicable and available).

(ii) - Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable or inapplicable, the qualified person must:

(A) - Determine if a registered professional engineer (RPE) is needed to develop criteria for the repair/adjustment. If an RPE is not needed, the employer must ensure that the criteria are developed by the qualified person. If an RPE is needed, the employer must ensure that they are developed by an RPE.

(B) - Determine if the repair/adjustment meets the criteria developed in accordance with paragraph (b)(1)(ii)(A) of this section.

(iii) - The inspection must include functional testing of the repaired/adjusted parts and other components that may be affected by the repair/adjustment.

(c) - Post-assembly.

(1) - Upon completion of assembly, the equipment must be inspected by a qualified person to assure that it is configured in accordance with manufacturer equipment criteria.

(2) - Where manufacturer equipment criteria are unavailable, a qualified person must:

(i) - Determine if a registered professional engineer (RPE) familiar with the type of equipment involved is needed to develop criteria for the equipment configuration. If an RPE is not needed, the employer must ensure that the criteria are developed by the qualified person. If an RPE is needed, the employer must ensure that they are developed by an RPE.

(ii) - Determine if the equipment meets the criteria developed in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(i) of this section.

(d) - Each shift.

(1) - A competent person must begin a visual inspection prior to each shift the equipment will be used, which must be completed before or during that shift. The inspection must consist of observation for apparent deficiencies. Taking apart equipment components and booming down is not required as part of this inspection unless the results of the visual inspection or trial operation indicate that further investigation necessitating taking apart equipment components or booming down is needed. Determinations made in conducting the inspection must be reassessed in light of observations made during operation. At a minimum the inspection must include all of the following:

(i) - Control mechanisms for maladjustments interfering with proper operation.

(ii) - Control and drive mechanisms for apparent excessive wear of components and contamination by lubricants, water or other foreign matter.

(iii) - Air, hydraulic, and other pressurized lines for deterioration or leakage, particularly those which flex in normal operation.

(iv) - Hydraulic system for proper fluid level.

(v) - Hooks and latches for deformation, cracks, excessive wear, or damage such as from chemicals or heat.

(vi) - Wire rope reeving for compliance with the manufacturer's specifications.

(vii) - Wire rope, in accordance with § 1926.1413(a).

(viii) - Electrical apparatus for malfunctioning, signs of apparent excessive deterioration, dirt or moisture accumulation.

(ix) - Tires (when in use) for proper inflation and condition.

(x) - Ground conditions around the equipment for proper support, including ground settling under and around outriggers/stabilizers and supporting foundations, ground water accumulation, or similar conditions. This paragraph does not apply to the inspection of ground conditions for railroad tracks and their underlying support when the railroad tracks are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213.

(xi) - The equipment for level position within the tolerances specified by the equipment manufacturer's recommendations, both before each shift and after each move and setup.

(xii) - Operator cab windows for significant cracks, breaks, or other deficiencies that would hamper the operator's view.

(xiii) - Rails, rail stops, rail clamps and supporting surfaces when the equipment has rail traveling. This paragraph does not apply to the inspection of rails, rail stops, rail clamps and supporting surfaces when the railroad tracks are part of the general railroad system of transportation that is regulated pursuant to the Federal Railroad Administration under 49 CFR part 213.

(xiv) - Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation.

(2) - If any deficiency in paragraphs (d)(1)(i) through (xiii) of this section (or in additional inspection items required to be checked for specific types of equipment in accordance with other sections of this standard) is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard, the equipment must be taken out of service until it has been corrected. See § 1926.1417.

(f) - Annual/comprehensive.

(1) - At least every 12 months the equipment must be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section (each shift) except that the corrective action set forth in paragraphs (f)(4), (f)(5), and (f)(6) of this section must apply in place of the corrective action required by paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section.

(2) - In addition, at least every 12 months, the equipment must be inspected by a qualified person. Disassembly is required, as necessary, to complete the inspection. The equipment must be inspected for all of the following:

(i) - Equipment structure (including the boom and, if equipped, the jib):

(A) - Structural members: Deformed, cracked, or significantly corroded.

(B) - Bolts, rivets and other fasteners: loose, failed or significantly corroded.

(C) - Welds for cracks.

(ii) - Sheaves and drums for cracks or significant wear.

(iii) - Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers and locking devices for distortion, cracks or significant wear.

(iv) - Brake and clutch system parts, linings, pawls and ratchets for excessive wear.

(v) - Safety devices and operational aids for proper operation (including significant inaccuracies).

(vi) - Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants for safety-related problems (such as leaking exhaust and emergency shut-down feature) and conditions, and proper operation.

(vii) - Chains and chain drive sprockets for excessive wear of sprockets and excessive chain stretch.

(viii) - Travel steering, brakes, and locking devices, for proper operation.

(ix) - Tires for damage or excessive wear.

(x) - Hydraulic, pneumatic and other pressurized hoses, fittings and tubing, as follows:

(A) - Flexible hose or its junction with the fittings for indications of leaks.

(B) - Threaded or clamped joints for leaks.

(C) - Outer covering of the hose for blistering, abnormal deformation or other signs of failure/impending failure.

(D) - Outer surface of a hose, rigid tube, or fitting for indications of excessive abrasion or scrubbing.

(xi) - Hydraulic and pneumatic pumps and motors, as follows:

(A) - Performance indicators: Unusual noises or vibration, low operating speed, excessive heating of the fluid, low pressure.

(B) - Loose bolts or fasteners.

(C) - Shaft seals and joints between pump sections for leaks.

(xii) - Hydraulic and pneumatic valves, as follows:

(A) - Spools: Sticking, improper return to neutral, and leaks.

(B) - Leaks.

(C) - Valve housing cracks.

(D) - Relief valves: Failure to reach correct pressure (if there is a manufacturer procedure for checking pressure, it must be followed).

(xiii) - Hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders, as follows:

(A) - Drifting caused by fluid leaking across the piston.

(B) - Rod seals and welded joints for leaks.

(C) - Cylinder rods for scores, nicks, or dents.

(D) - Case (barrel) for significant dents.

(E) - Rod eyes and connecting joints: Loose or deformed.

(xiv) - Outrigger or stabilizer pads/floats for excessive wear or cracks.

(xv) - Slider pads for excessive wear or cracks.

(xvi) - Electrical components and wiring for cracked or split insulation and loose or corroded terminations.

(xvii) - Warning labels and decals originally supplied with the equipment by the manufacturer or otherwise required under this standard: Missing or unreadable.

(xviii) - Originally equipped operator seat (or equivalent): Missing.

(xix) - Operator seat: Unserviceable.

(xx) - Originally equipped steps, ladders, handrails, guards: Missing.

(xxi) - Steps, ladders, handrails, guards: In unusable/unsafe condition.

(3) - This inspection must include functional testing to determine that the equipment as configured in the inspection is functioning properly.

(4) - If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard or, though not yet a safety hazard, needs to be monitored in the monthly inspections.

(5) - If the qualified person determines that a deficiency is a safety hazard, the equipment must be taken out of service until it has been corrected, except when temporary alternative measures are implemented as specified in § 1926.1416(d) or § 1926.1435(e). See § 1926.1417.

(6) - If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.

(g) - Severe service. Where the severity of use/conditions is such that there is a reasonable probability of damage or excessive wear (such as loading that may have exceeded rated capacity, shock loading that may have exceeded rated capacity, prolonged exposure to a corrosive atmosphere), the employer must stop using the equipment and a qualified person must:

(1) - Inspect the equipment for structural damage to determine if the equipment can continue to be used safely.

(2) - In light of the use/conditions determine whether any items/conditions listed in paragraph (f) of this section need to be inspected; if so, the qualified person must inspect those items/conditions.

(h) - Equipment not in regular use. Equipment that has been idle for 3 months or more must be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (e) (Monthly) of this section before initial use.

 

1926.1413 - Wire rope--inspection.

(a) - Shift inspection.

(1) - A competent person must begin a visual inspection prior to each shift the equipment is used, which must be completed before or during that shift. The inspection must consist of observation of wire ropes (running and standing) that are likely to be in use during the shift for apparent deficiencies, including those listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. Untwisting (opening) of wire rope or booming down is not required as part of this inspection.

(3) - Critical review items. The competent person must give particular attention to all of the following:

(i) - Rotation resistant wire rope in use.

(ii) - Wire rope being used for boom hoists and luffing hoists, particularly at reverse bends.

(iii) - Wire rope at flange points, crossover points and repetitive pickup points on drums.

(iv) - Wire rope at or near terminal ends.

(v) - Wire rope in contact with saddles, equalizer sheaves or other sheaves where rope travel is limited.

(4) - Removal from service.

(i) - If a deficiency in Category I (see paragraph (a)(2)(i) of this section) is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the competent person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard. If the deficiency is determined to constitute a safety hazard, operations involving use of the wire rope in question must be prohibited until:

(A) - The wire rope is replaced (see § 1926.1417), or

(B) - If the deficiency is localized, the problem is corrected by severing the wire rope in two; the undamaged portion may continue to be used. Joining lengths of wire rope by splicing is prohibited. If a rope is shortened under this paragraph, the employer must ensure that the drum will still have two wraps of wire when the load and/or boom is in its lowest position.

(b) - Monthly inspection.

(1) - Each month an inspection must be conducted in accordance with paragraph (a) (shift inspection) of this section.

(2) - The inspection must include any deficiencies that the qualified person who conducts the annual inspection determines under paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section must be monitored.

(c) - Annual/comprehensive.

(1) - At least every 12 months, wire ropes in use on equipment must be inspected by a qualified person in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section (shift inspection).

(2) - In addition, at least every 12 months, the wire ropes in use on equipment must be inspected by a qualified person, as follows:

(i) - The inspection must be for deficiencies of the types listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(ii) - The inspection must be complete and thorough, covering the surface of the entire length of the wire ropes, with particular attention given to all of the following:

(A) - Critical review items listed in paragraph (a)(3) of this section.

(B) - Those sections that are normally hidden during shift and monthly inspections.

(C) - Wire rope subject to reverse bends.

(D) - Wire rope passing over sheaves.

(3) - If a deficiency is identified, an immediate determination must be made by the qualified person as to whether the deficiency constitutes a safety hazard.

(ii) - If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure that the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.

 

1926.1414 - Wire rope--selection and installation criteria.

(a) - Original equipment wire rope and replacement wire rope must be selected and installed in accordance with the requirements of this section. Selection of replacement wire rope must be in accordance with the recommendations of the wire rope manufacturer, the equipment manufacturer, or a qualified person.

(e) –  Rotation resistant ropes.

(3) - When Types II and III with an operating design factor of less than 5 are used (for non-duty cycle, non-repetitive lifts), the following requirements must be met for each lifting operation:

(i) - A qualified person must inspect the rope in accordance with § 1926.1413(a). The rope must be used only if the qualified person determines that there are no deficiencies constituting a hazard. In making this determination, more than one broken wire in any one rope lay must be considered a hazard.

(iii) - Each lift made under § 1926.1414(e)(3) must be recorded in the monthly and annual inspection documents. Such prior uses must be considered by the qualified person in determining whether to use the rope again.

 

1926.1417 - Operation.

(b) - Unavailable operation procedures.

(2) - Procedures for the operational controls must be developed by a qualified person.

(3) - Procedures related to the capacity of the equipment must be developed and signed by a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.

(e) - Leaving the equipment unattended.

(1) - The operator must not leave the controls while the load is suspended, except where all of the following are met:

(i) - The operator remains adjacent to the equipment and is not engaged in any other duties.

(ii) - The load is to be held suspended for a period of time exceeding normal lifting operations.

(iii) - The competent person determines that it is safe to do so and implements measures necessary to restrain the boom hoist and telescoping, load, swing, and outrigger or stabilizer functions.

(iv) - Barricades or caution lines, and notices, are erected to prevent all employees from entering the fall zone. No employees, including those listed in § § 1926.1425(b)(1) through (3), § 1926.1425(d) or § 1926.1425(e), are permitted in the fall zone.

(h) - Storm warning. When a local storm warning has been issued, the competent person must determine whether it is necessary to implement manufacturer recommendations for securing the equipment.

(m) - If the competent person determines that there is a slack rope condition requiring re-spooling of the rope, it must be verified (before starting to lift) that the rope is seated on the drum and in the sheaves as the slack is removed.

(n) - The competent person must adjust the equipment and/or operations to address the effect of wind, ice, and snow on equipment stability and rated capacity.

(u) - Traveling with a load.

(2) - Where traveling with a load, the employer must ensure that:

(i) - A competent person supervises the operation, determines if it is necessary to reduce rated capacity, and makes determinations regarding load position, boom location, ground support, travel route, overhead obstructions, and speed of movement necessary to ensure safety.

(ii) - The determinations of the competent person required in paragraph (u)(2)(i) of this section are implemented.

 

1926.1418 - Authority to stop operation.

Whenever there is a concern as to safety, the operator must have the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads until a qualified person has determined that safety has been assured.

 

1926.1419 - Signals--general requirements.

(a) - A signal person must be provided in each of the following situations:

(1) - The point of operation, meaning the load travel or the area near or at load placement, is not in full view of the operator.

(2) - When the equipment is traveling, the view in the direction of travel is obstructed.

(3) - Due to site specific safety concerns, either the operator or the person handling the load determines that it is necessary.

(c) - Hand signals.

(1) - When using hand signals, the Standard Method must be used (see Appendix A of this subpart). Exception: Where use of the Standard Method for hand signals is infeasible, or where an operation or use of an attachment is not covered in the Standard Method, non-standard hand signals may be used in accordance with paragraph (c)(2) of this section.

(2) - Non-standard hand signals. When using non-standard hand signals, the signal person, operator, and lift director (where there is one) must contact each other prior to the operation and agree on the non-standard hand signals that will be used.

(f) - During operations requiring signals, the ability to transmit signals between the operator and signal person must be maintained. If that ability is interrupted at any time, the operator must safely stop operations requiring signals until it is reestablished and a proper signal is given and understood.

(g) - If the operator becomes aware of a safety problem and needs to communicate with the signal person, the operator must safely stop operations. Operations must not resume until the operator and signal person agree that the problem has been resolved.

(j) - Anyone who becomes aware of a safety problem must alert the operator or signal person by giving the stop or emergency stop signal. (Note: § 1926.1417(y) requires the operator to obey a stop or emergency stop signal).

(k) - All directions given to the operator by the signal person must be given from the operator's direction perspective.

(m) - Communication with multiple cranes/derricks. Where a signal person(s) is in communication with more than one crane/derrick, a system must be used for identifying the crane/derrick each signal is for, as follows:

(1) - for each signal, prior to giving the function/direction, the signal person must identify the crane/derrick the signal is for, or

(2) - must use an equally effective method of identifying which crane/derrick the signal is for.

 

1926.1421 - Signals--voice signals--additional requirements.

(a) - Prior to beginning operations, the operator, signal person and lift director (if there is one), must contact each other and agree on the voice signals that will be used. Once the voice signals are agreed upon, these workers need not meet again to discuss voice signals unless another worker is added or substituted, there is confusion about the voice signals, or a voice signal is to be changed.

(c) - The operator, signal person and lift director (if there is one), must be able to effectively communicate in the language used.

 

1926.1423 – Fall Protection

(g) - Anchorage criteria.

(2) - Anchorages for personal fall arrest and positioning device systems.

(i) - Personal fall arrest systems must be anchored to any apparently substantial part of the equipment unless a competent person, from a visual inspection, without an engineering analysis, would conclude that the criteria in § 1926.502(d)(15) would not be met.

(ii) - Positioning device systems must be anchored to any apparently substantial part of the equipment unless a competent person, from a visual inspection, without an engineering analysis, would conclude that the criteria in § 1926.502(e)(2) would not be met.

(j) - Anchoring to the load line. A personal fall arrest system is permitted to be anchored to the crane/derrick's hook (or other part of the load line) where all of the following requirements are met:

(1) - A qualified person has determined that the set-up and rated capacity of the crane/derrick (including the hook, load line and rigging) meets or exceeds the requirements in § 1926.502(d)(15).

(2) - The equipment operator must be at the work site and informed that the equipment is being used for this purpose.

(3) - No load is suspended from the load line when the personal fall arrest system is anchored to the crane/derrick's hook (or other part of the load line).

(k) - Training. The employer must train each employee who may be exposed to fall hazards while on, or hoisted by, equipment covered by this subpart on all of the following:

(1) - the requirements in this subpart that address fall protection.

(2) - the applicable requirements in § § 1926.500 and 1926.502.

 

1926.1424 - Work area control.

(a) - Swing radius hazards.

(2) - To prevent employees from entering these hazard areas, the employer must:

(i) - Train each employee assigned to work on or near the equipment ("authorized personnel") in how to recognize struck-by and pinch/crush hazard areas posed by the rotating superstructure.

 

1926.1425 - Keeping clear of the load.

(c) - When employees are engaged in hooking, unhooking, or guiding the load, or in the initial connection of a load to a component or structure and are within the fall zone, all of the following criteria must be met:

(1) - The materials being hoisted must be rigged to prevent unintentional displacement.

(2) - Hooks with self-closing latches or their equivalent must be used. Exception: "J" hooks are permitted to be used for setting wooden trusses.

(3) - The materials must be rigged by a qualified rigger.

 

1926.1427 - Operator qualification and certification. (Section posted in its entirety)

(a) - The employer must ensure that, prior to operating any equipment covered under subpart CC, the person is operating the equipment during a training period in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section, or the operator is qualified or certified to operate the equipment in accordance with the following:

(1) - When a non-military government entity issues operator licenses for equipment covered under subpart CC, and that government licensing program meets the requirements of paragraphs (e)(2) and (j) of this section, the equipment operator must either be:

(i) - Licensed by that government entity for operation of equipment within that entity's jurisdiction; or

(ii) - qualified in compliance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(2) - Where paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not applicable, the certification or qualification must comply with one of the options in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section.

(3) - Exceptions: Operator qualification or certification under this section is not required for operators of derricks (see § 1926.1436), sideboom cranes (see § 1926.1440), or equipment with a maximum manufacturer-rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less (see § 1926.1441).

(4) - Whenever operator qualification or certification is required under § 1926.1427, the employer must provide the qualification or certification at no cost to operators who are employed by the employer on November 8, 2010.

(b) - Option (1): Certification by an accredited crane operator testing organization.

(1) - For a testing organization to be considered accredited to certify operators under this subpart, it must:

(i) - Be accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency based on that agency's determination that industry recognized criteria for written testing materials, practical examinations, test administration, grading, facilities/equipment and personnel have been met.

(ii) - Administer written and practical tests that:

(A) - Assess the operator applicant regarding, at a minimum, the knowledge and skills listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(B) - Provide different levels of certification based on equipment capacity and type.

(iii) - Have procedures for operators to re-apply and be re-tested in the event an operator applicant fails a test or is decertified.

(iv) - Have testing procedures for re-certification designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(v) - Have its accreditation reviewed by the nationally recognized accrediting agency at least every three years.

(2) - An operator will be deemed qualified to operate a particular piece of equipment if the operator is certified under paragraph (b) of this section for that type and capacity of equipment or for higher-capacity equipment of that type. If no accredited testing agency offers certification examinations for a particular type and/or capacity of equipment, an operator will be deemed qualified to operate that equipment if the operator has been certified for the type/capacity that is most similar to that equipment and for which a certification examination is available. The operator's certificate must state the type/capacity of equipment for which the operator is certified.

(3) - A certification issued under this option is portable and meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this section.

(4) - A certification issued under this paragraph is valid for 5 years.

(c) - Option (2): Qualification by an audited employer program. The employer's qualification of its employee must meet the following requirements:

(1) - The written and practical tests must be either:

(i) - Developed by an accredited crane operator testing organization (see paragraph (b) of this section); or

(ii) - Approved by an auditor in accordance with the following requirements:

(A) - The auditor is certified to evaluate such tests by an accredited crane operator testing organization (see paragraph (b) of this section).

(B) - The auditor is not an employee of the employer.

(C) - The approval must be based on the auditor's determination that the written and practical tests meet nationally recognized test development criteria and are valid and reliable in assessing the operator applicants regarding, at a minimum, the knowledge and skills listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(D) - The audit must be conducted in accordance with nationally recognized auditing standards.

(2) - Administration of tests.

(i) - The written and practical tests must be administered under circumstances approved by the auditor as meeting nationally recognized test administration standards.

(ii) - The auditor must be certified to evaluate the administration of the written and practical tests by an accredited crane operator testing organization (see paragraph (b) of this section).

(iii) - The auditor must not be an employee of the employer.

(iv) - The audit must be conducted in accordance with nationally recognized auditing standards.

(3) - The employer program must be audited within 3 months of the beginning of the program and at least every 3 years thereafter.

(4) - The employer program must have testing procedures for re-qualification designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section. The re-qualification procedures must be audited in accordance with paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of this section.

(5) - Deficiencies. If the auditor determines that there is a significant deficiency ("deficiency") in the program, the employer must ensure that:

(i) - No operator is qualified until the auditor confirms that the deficiency has been corrected.

(ii) - The program is audited again within 180 days of the confirmation that the deficiency was corrected.

(iii) - The auditor files a documented report of the deficiency to the appropriate Regional Office of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration within 15 days of the auditor's determination that there is a deficiency.

(iv) - Records of the audits of the employer's program are maintained by the auditor for three years and are made available by the auditor to the Secretary of Labor or the Secretary's designated representative upon request.

(6) - A qualification under this paragraph is:

(i) - Not portable. Such a qualification meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section only where the operator is employed by (and operating the equipment for) the employer that issued the qualification.

(ii) - Valid for 5 years.

(d) - Option (3): Qualification by the U.S. military.

(1) - For purposes of this section, an operator who is an employee of the U.S. military is considered qualified if he/she has a current operator qualification issued by the U.S. military for operation of the equipment. An employee of the U.S. military is a Federal employee of the Department of Defense or Armed Forces and does not include employees of private contractors.

(2) - A qualification under this paragraph is:

(i) - Not portable. Such a qualification meets the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section only where the operator is employed by (and operating the equipment for) the employer that issued the qualification.

(ii) - Valid for the period of time stipulated by the issuing entity.

(e) - Option (4): Licensing by a government entity.

(1) - For purposes of this section, a government licensing department/office that issues operator licenses for operating equipment covered by this standard is considered a government accredited crane operator testing organization if the criteria in paragraph (e)(2) of this section are met.

(2) - Licensing criteria.

(i) - The requirements for obtaining the license include an assessment, by written and practical tests, of the operator applicant regarding, at a minimum, the knowledge and skills listed in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(ii) - The testing meets industry recognized criteria for written testing materials, practical examinations, test administration, grading, facilities/equipment and personnel.

(iii) - The government authority that oversees the licensing department/office, has determined that the requirements in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section have been met.

(iv) - The licensing department/office has testing procedures for re-licensing designed to ensure that the operator continues to meet the technical knowledge and skills requirements in paragraphs (j)(1) and (2) of this section.

(3) - A license issued by a government accredited crane operator testing organization that meets the requirements of this option:

(i) - Meets the operator qualification requirements of this section for operation of equipment only within the jurisdiction of the government entity.

(ii) - Is valid for the period of time stipulated by the licensing department/office, but no longer than 5 years.

(f) - Pre-qualification/certification training period. An employee who is not qualified or certified under this section is permitted to operate equipment only as an operator-in-training and only where the requirements of this paragraph are met.

(1) - The employer must provide each operator-in-training with sufficient training prior to operating the equipment to enable the operator-in-training to operate the equipment safely under limitations established by this section (including continuous monitoring) and any additional limitations established by the employer.

(2) - The tasks performed by the operator-in-training while operating the equipment must be within the operator-in-training's ability.

(3) - Trainer. While operating the equipment, the operator-in-training must be continuously monitored by an individual ("operator's trainer") who meets all of the following requirements:

(i) - The operator's trainer is an employee or agent of the operator-in-training's employer.

(ii) - The operator's trainer is either a certified operator under this section, or has passed the written portion of a certification test under one of the options in paragraphs (b) through (e) of this section, and is familiar with the proper use of the equipment's controls.

(iii) - While monitoring the operator-in-training, the operator's trainer performs no tasks that detract from the trainer's ability to monitor the operator-in-training.

(iv) - For equipment other than tower cranes: The operator's trainer and the operator-in-training must be in direct line of sight of each other. In addition, they must communicate verbally or by hand signals. For tower cranes: The operator's trainer and the operator-in-training must be in direct communication with each other.

(4) - Continuous monitoring. The operator-in-training must be monitored by the operator's trainer at all times, except for short breaks where all of the following are met:

(i) - The break lasts no longer than 15 minutes and there is no more than one break per hour.

(ii) - Immediately prior to the break the operator's trainer informs the operator-in-training of the specific tasks that the operator-in-training is to perform and limitations to which he/she must adhere during the operator trainer's break.

(iii) - The specific tasks that the operator-in-training will perform during the operator trainer's break are within the operator-in-training's abilities.

(5) - The operator-in-training must not operate the equipment in any of the following circumstances unless the exception stated in paragraph (f)(5)(v) of this section is applicable:

(i) - If any part of the equipment, load line or load (including rigging and lifting accessories), if operated up to the equipment's maximum working radius in the work zone (see § 1926.1408(a)(1)), could get within 20 feet of a power line that is up to 350 kV, or within 50 feet of a power line that is over 350 kV.

(ii) - If the equipment is used to hoist personnel.

(iii) - In multiple-equipment lifts.

(iv) - If the equipment is used over a shaft, cofferdam, or in a tank farm.

(v) - In multiple-lift rigging operations, except where the operator's trainer determines that the operator-in-training skills are sufficient for this high-skill work.

(g) - Under this section, a testing entity is permitted to provide training as well as testing services as long as the criteria of the applicable accrediting agency (in the option selected) for an organization providing both services are met.

(h) - Language and Literacy Requirements.

(1) - Tests under this section may be administered verbally, with answers given verbally, where the operator candidate:

(i) - Passes a written demonstration of literacy relevant to the work.

(ii) - Demonstrates the ability to use the type of written manufacturer procedures applicable to the class/type of equipment for which the candidate is seeking certification.

(2) - Tests under this section may be administered in any language the operator candidate understands, and the operator's certificate must note the language in which the test was given. The operator is qualified under paragraph (b)(2) of this section to operate equipment that is furnished with materials required by this subpart that are written in the language of the certification. The operator may only operate equipment furnished with such materials.

(i) - reserved

(j) - Certification criteria. Qualifications and certifications must be based, at a minimum, on the following:

(1) - A determination through a written test that:

(i) - The individual knows the information necessary for safe operation of the specific type of equipment the individual will operate, including all of the following:

(A) - The controls and operational/performance characteristics.

(B) - Use of, and the ability to calculate (manually or with a calculator), load/capacity information on a variety of configurations of the equipment.

(C) - Procedures for preventing and responding to power line contact.

(D) - Technical knowledge similar to the subject matter criteria listed in Appendix C of this subpart applicable to the specific type of equipment the individual will operate. Use of the Appendix C criteria meets the requirements of this provision.

(E) - Technical knowledge applicable to:

(1) - The suitability of the supporting ground and surface to handle expected loads.

(2) - Site hazards.

(3) - Site access.

(F) - This subpart, including applicable incorporated materials.

(ii) - The individual is able to read and locate relevant information in the equipment manual and other materials containing information referred to in paragraph (j)(1)(i) of this section.

(2) - A determination through a practical test that the individual has the skills necessary for safe operation of the equipment, including the following:

(i) - Ability to recognize, from visual and auditory observation, the items listed in § 1926.1412(d) (shift inspection).

(ii) - Operational and maneuvering skills.

(iii) - Application of load chart information.

(iv) - Application of safe shut-down and securing procedures.

(k) - Phase-in.

(1) - The provisions of this section are applicable November 8, 2010, except for paragraphs (a)(2) and (f) which are applicable November 10, 2014.

(2) - When § 1926.1427(a)(1) is not applicable, all of the requirements in paragraphs (k)(2)(i) and (ii) of this section apply until November 10, 2014:

(i) - The employer must ensure that operators of equipment covered by this standard are competent to operate the equipment safely.

(ii) - Where an employee assigned to operate machinery does not have the required knowledge or ability to operate the equipment safely, the employer must train that employee prior to operating the equipment. The employer must ensure that each operator is evaluated to confirm that he/she understands the information provided in the training.

 

1926.142 - Signal person qualifications. (Section posted in its entirety)

(a) - The employer of the signal person must ensure that each signal person meets the Qualification Requirements (paragraph (c) of this section) prior to giving any signals. This requirement must be met by using either Option (1) or Option (2) of this section.

(1) - Option (1)--Third party qualified evaluator. The signal person has documentation from a third party qualified evaluator (see Qualified Evaluator (third party), § 1926.1401 for definition) showing that the signal person meets the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section).

(2) - Option (2)--Employer's qualified evaluator. The employer's qualified (see Qualified Evaluator (not a third party), § 1926.1401 for definition) evaluator assesses the individual and determines that the individual meets the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section) and provides documentation of that determination. An assessment by an employer's qualified evaluator under this option is not portable--other employers are not permitted to use it to meet the requirements of this section.

(3) - The employer must make the documentation for whichever option is used available at the site while the signal person is employed by the employer. The documentation must specify each type of signaling (e.g. hand signals, radio signals, etc.) for which the signal person meets the requirements of paragraph (c) of this section.

(b) - If subsequent actions by the signal person indicate that the individual does not meet the Qualification Requirements (see paragraph (c) of this section), the employer must not allow the individual to continue working as a signal person until re-training is provided and a re-assessment is made in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section that confirms that the individual meets the Qualification Requirements.

(c) - Qualification Requirements. Each signal person must:

(1) - Know and understand the type of signals used. If hand signals are used, the signal person must know and understand the Standard Method for hand signals.

(2) - Be competent in the application of the type of signals used.

(3) - Have a basic understanding of equipment operation and limitations, including the crane dynamics involved in swinging and stopping loads and boom deflection from hoisting loads.

(4) - Know and understand the relevant requirements of § 1926.1419 through § 1926.1422 and § 1926.1428.

(5) - Demonstrate that he/she meets the requirements in paragraphs (c)(1) through (4) of this section through an oral or written test, and through a practical test.

 

1926.1429 - Qualifications of maintenance & repair employees. (Section posted in its entirety)

(a) - Maintenance, inspection and repair personnel are permitted to operate the equipment only where all of the following requirements are met:

(1) - The operation is limited to those functions necessary to perform maintenance, inspect the equipment, or verify its performance.

(2) - The personnel either:

(i) - Operate the equipment under the direct supervision of an operator who meets the requirements of § 1926.1427 (Operator qualification and certification); or

(ii) - Are familiar with the operation, limitations, characteristics and hazards associated with the type of equipment.

(b) - Maintenance and repair personnel must meet the definition of a qualified person with respect to the equipment and maintenance/repair tasks performed.

 

1926.1430 - Training. (Section posted in its entirety)

The employer must provide training as follows:

(a) - Overhead powerlines. The employer must train each employee specified in § 1926.1408(g) and § 1926.1410(m) in the topics listed in § 1926.1408(g).

(b) - Signal persons. The employer must train each employee who will be assigned to work as a signal persons who does not meet the requirements of § 1926.1428(c) in the areas addressed in that paragraph.

(c) - Operators.

(1) - Operators-in-Training for equipment where certification or qualification is required by this subpart. The employer must train each operator-in-training in the areas addressed in § 1926.1427(j). The employer must provide re-training if the operator-in-training does not pass a qualification or certification test.

(2) - Transitional Period. During the four-year phase-in period for operator certification or qualification, as provided in § 1926.1427(k), employers must train each operator who has not yet been certified or qualified in the areas addressed in § 1926.1427(j).

(3) - Operators excepted from the requirements of § 1926.1427. The employer must train each operator excepted under § 1926.1427(a) from the requirements of § 1926.1427 on the safe operation of the equipment the operator will be using.

(4) - The employer must train each operator of the equipment covered by this subpart in the following practices:

(i) - On friction equipment, whenever moving a boom off a support, first raise the boom a short distance (sufficient to take the load of the boom) to determine if the boom hoist brake needs to be adjusted. On other types of equipment with a boom, the same practice is applicable, except that typically there is no means of adjusting the brake; if the brake does not hold, a repair is necessary. See § 1926.1417(f) and (j) for additional requirements.

(ii) - Where available, the manufacturer's emergency procedures for halting unintended equipment movement.

(d) - Competent persons and qualified persons. The employer must train each competent person and each qualified person regarding the requirements of this subpart applicable to their respective roles.

(e) - Crush/pinch points. The employer must train each employee who works with the equipment to keep clear of holes, and crush/pinch points and the hazards addressed in § 1926.1424 (Work area control).

(f) - Tag-out. The employer must train each operator and each additional employee authorized to start/energize equipment or operate equipment controls (such as maintenance and repair employees), in the tag-out and start-up procedures in § § 1926.1417(f) and (g).

(g) - Training administration.

(1) - The employer must evaluate each employee required to be trained under this subpart to confirm that the employee understands the information provided in the training.

(2) - The employer must provide refresher training in relevant topics for each employee when, based on the conduct of the employee or an evaluation of the employee's knowledge, there is an indication that retraining is necessary.

(3) - Whenever training is required under subpart CC, the employer must provide the training at no cost to the employee.

 

1926.1431 – Hoisting Personnel

(e) - Personnel platform criteria.

(1) - A qualified person familiar with structural design must design the personnel platform and attachment/suspension system used for hoisting personnel.

(5) - All welding of the personnel platform and its components must be performed by a certified welder familiar with the weld grades, types and material specified in the platform design.

(h) - Trial lift and inspection.

(2) - The trial lift must be performed immediately prior to each shift in which personnel will be hoisted. In addition, the trial lift must be repeated prior to hoisting employees in each of the following circumstances:

(i) - The equipment is moved and set up in a new location or returned to a previously used location.

(ii) - The lift route is changed, unless the competent person determines that the new route presents no new factors affecting safety.

(3) - The competent person must determine that:

(i) - Safety devices and operational aids required by this section are activated and functioning properly. Other safety devices and operational aids must meet the requirements of § 1926.1415 and § 1926.1416.

(ii) - Nothing interferes with the equipment or the personnel platform in the course of the trial lift.

(iii) - The lift will not exceed 50 percent of the equipment's rated capacity at any time during the lift.

(iv) - The load radius to be used during the lift has been accurately determined.

(4) - Immediately after the trial lift, the competent person must:

(i) - Conduct a visual inspection of the equipment, base support or ground, and personnel platform, to determine whether the trial lift has exposed any defect or problem or produced any adverse effect.

(ii) - Confirm that, upon the completion of the trial lift process, the test weight has been removed.

(5) - Immediately prior to each lift:

(i) - The platform must be hoisted a few inches with the personnel and materials/tools on board and inspected by a competent person to ensure that it is secure and properly balanced.

(ii) - The following conditions must be determined by a competent person to exist before the lift of personnel proceeds:

(A) - Hoist ropes must be free of deficiencies in accordance with § 1926.1413(a).

(B) - Multiple part lines must not be twisted around each other.

(C) - The primary attachment must be centered over the platform.

(D) - If the load rope is slack, the hoisting system must be inspected to ensure that all ropes are properly seated on drums and in sheaves.

(j) - Proof testing.

(3) - After proof testing, a competent person must inspect the platform and rigging to determine if the test has been passed. If any deficiencies are found that pose a safety hazard, the platform and rigging must not be used to hoist personnel unless the deficiencies are corrected, the test is repeated, and a competent person determines that the test has been passed. (See § 1926.1417 for tag-out and related requirements.)

(4) - Personnel hoisting must not be conducted until the competent person determines that the platform and rigging have successfully passed the proof test.

(k) - Work practices.

(7) - Platforms with controls. Where the platform is equipped with controls, all of the following must be met at all times while the platform is occupied:

(i) - The occupant using the controls in the platform must be a qualified person with respect to their use, including the safe limitations of the equipment and hazards associated with its operation.

(ii) - The equipment operator must be at a set of equipment controls that include boom and swing functions of the equipment, and must be on site and in view of the equipment.

(iii) - The platform operating manual must be in the platform or on the equipment.

(8) - Environmental conditions.

(i) - Wind. When wind speed (sustained or gusts) exceeds 20 mph at the personnel platform, a qualified person must determine if, in light of the wind conditions, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation must not begin (or, if already in progress, must be terminated).

(ii) - Other weather and environmental conditions. A qualified person must determine if, in light of indications of dangerous weather conditions, or other impending or existing danger, it is not safe to lift personnel. If it is not, the lifting operation must not begin (or, if already in progress, must be terminated).

(9) - Employees being hoisted must remain in direct communication with the signal person (where used), or the operator.

(m) - Pre-lift meeting. A pre-lift meeting must be:

(1) - Held to review the applicable requirements of this section and the procedures that will be followed.

(2) - Attended by the equipment operator, signal person (if used for the lift), employees to be hoisted, and the person responsible for the task to be performed.

(3) - Held prior to the trial lift at each new work location, and must be repeated for any employees newly assigned to the operation.

(o) - Hoisting personnel in drill shafts.

(3) - If using a boatswain's chair:

(ii) - A signal person must be stationed at the shaft opening.

 

1926.1432 - Multiple-crane/derrick lifts--supplemental requirements.

(a) - Plan development. Before beginning a crane/derrick operation in which more than one crane/derrick will be supporting the load, the operation must be planned. The planning must meet the following requirements:

(1) - The plan must be developed by a qualified person.

(2) - The plan must be designed to ensure that the requirements of this subpart are met.

(3) - Where the qualified person determines that engineering expertise is needed for the planning, the employer must ensure that it is provided.

(b) - Plan implementation.

(1) - The multiple-crane/derrick lift must be directed by a person who meets the criteria for both a competent person and a qualified person, or by a competent person who is assisted by one or more qualified persons (lift director).

(2) - The lift director must review the plan in a meeting with all workers who will be involved with the operation.

 

1926.1433 – Design, construction and testing.

(d) – All equipment covered by this subpart must meet the following requirements:

(4) - Latching hooks.

(i) - Hooks must be equipped with latches, except where the requirements of paragraph (d)(4)(ii) of this section are met.

(ii) - Hooks without latches, or with latches removed or disabled, must not be used unless:

(A) - A qualified person has determined that it is safer to hoist and place the load without latches (or with the latches removed/tied-back).

(B) - Routes for the loads are pre-planned to ensure that no employee is required to work in the fall zone except for employees necessary for the hooking or unhooking of the load.

 

1926.1434 - Equipment modifications.

(a) - Modifications or additions which affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment are prohibited except where the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1), (a)(2), (a)(3), (a)(4), or (a)(5) of this section are met.

(2) - Manufacturer refusal to review request. The manufacturer is provided a detailed description of the proposed modification/addition, is asked to approve the modification/addition, but it declines to review the technical merits of the proposal or fails, within 30 days, to acknowledge the request or initiate the review, and all of the following are met:

(i) - A registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to the equipment involved:

(A) - Approves the modification/addition and specifies the equipment configurations to which that approval applies, and

(B) - Modifies load charts, procedures, instruction manuals and instruction plates/tags/decals as necessary to accord with the modification/addition.

(ii) - The original safety factor of the equipment is not reduced.

 

1926.1435 - Tower cranes.

(b) - Erecting, climbing and dismantling.

(2) - Dangerous areas (self-erecting tower cranes). In addition to the requirements in § 1926.1404(e), for self-erecting tower cranes, the following applies: Employees must not be in or under the tower, jib, or rotating portion of the crane during erecting, climbing and dismantling operations until the crane is secured in a locked position and the competent person in charge indicates it is safe to enter this area, unless the manufacturer's instructions direct otherwise and only the necessary personnel are permitted in this area.

(3) - Foundations and structural supports. Tower crane foundations and structural supports (including both the portions of the structure used for support and the means of attachment) must be designed by the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer.

(4) - Addressing specific hazards. The requirements in § 1926.1404(h)(1) through (9) apply. In addition, the A/D director must address the following:

(i) - Foundations and structural supports. The A/D director must determine that tower crane foundations and structural supports are installed in accordance with their design.

(ii) - Loss of backward stability. Backward stability before swinging self-erecting cranes or cranes on traveling or static undercarriages.

(iii) - Wind speed. Wind must not exceed the speed recommended by the manufacturer or, where manufacturer does not specify this information, the speed determined by a qualified person.

(7) - Climbing procedures. Prior to, and during, all climbing procedures (including inside climbing and top climbing), the employer must:

(ii) - Have a registered professional engineer verify that the host structure is strong enough to sustain the forces imposed through the braces, brace anchorages and supporting floors.

(8) - Counterweight/ballast.

(i) - Equipment must not be erected, dismantled or operated without the amount and position of counterweight and/or ballast in place as specified by the manufacturer or a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.

(ii) - The maximum counterweight and/or ballast specified by the manufacturer or registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment must not be exceeded.

(c) - Signs. The size and location of signs installed on tower cranes must be in accordance with manufacturer specifications. Where these are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must approve in writing the size and location of any signs.

(e) - Operational aids.

(5) - Category I operational aids and alternative measures. Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly must be repaired no later than 7 calendar days after the deficiency occurs. Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 calendar days of the occurrence of the deficiency, the repair must be completed within 7 calendar days of receipt of the parts.

(i) - Trolley travel limiting device. The travel of the trolley must be restricted at both ends of the jib by a trolley travel limiting device to prevent the trolley from running into the trolley end stops. Temporary alternative measures:

(A) - Option A. The trolley rope must be marked (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the trolley prior to the end stops.

(B) - Option B. A spotter who is in direct communication with the operator must be used when operations are conducted within 10 feet of the outer or inner trolley end stops.

(ii) - Boom hoist limiting device. The range of the boom must be limited at the minimum and maximum radius. Temporary alternative measures: Clearly mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the boom hoist within the minimum and maximum boom radius, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.

(iii) - Anti two-blocking device. The tower crane must be equipped with a device which automatically prevents damage from contact between the load block, overhaul ball, or similar component, and the boom tip (or fixed upper block or similar component). The device(s) must prevent such damage at all points where two-blocking could occur. Temporary alternative measures: Clearly mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist to prevent two-blocking, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached.

(iv) - Hoist drum lower limiting device. Tower cranes manufactured after November 8, 2011 must be equipped with a device that prevents the last 2 wraps of hoist cable from being spooled off the drum. Temporary alternative measures: Mark the cable (so it can be seen by the operator) at a point that will give the operator sufficient time to stop the hoist prior to last 2 wraps of hoist cable being spooled off the drum, or use a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator to inform the operator when this point is reached

(vii) - Rail travel limiting device. The travel distance in each direction must be limited to prevent the travel bogies from running into the end stops or buffers. Temporary alternative measures: A spotter who is in direct communication with the operator must be used when operations are conducted within 10 feet of either end of the travel rail end stops; the spotter must inform the operator of the distance of the travel bogies from the end stops or buffers.

(6) -  Category II operational aids and alternative measures. Operational aids listed in this paragraph that are not working properly must be repaired no later than 30 calendar days after the deficiency occurs. Exception: If the employer documents that it has ordered the necessary parts within 7 calendar days of the occurrence of the deficiency, and the part is not received in time to complete the repair in 30 calendar days, the repair must be completed within 7 calendar days of receipt of the parts.

(v) - Wind speed indicator. A device must be provided to display the wind speed and must be mounted above the upper rotating structure on tower cranes. On self-erecting cranes, it must be mounted at or above the jib level. Temporary alternative measures: Use of wind speed information from a properly functioning indicating device on another tower crane on the same site, or a qualified person estimates the wind speed.

(f) - Inspections.

(1) - Section 1926.1412 (Inspections) applies to tower cranes, except that the term "assembly" is replaced by "erection." Section 1926.1413 (Wire rope--inspection) applies to tower cranes.

(2) - Pre-erection inspection. Before each crane component is erected, it must be inspected by a qualified person for damage or excessive wear.

(i) - The qualified person must pay particular attention to components that will be difficult to inspect thoroughly during shift inspections.

(ii) - If the qualified person determines that a component is damaged or worn to the extent that it would create a safety hazard if used on the crane, that component must not be erected on the crane unless it is repaired and, upon re-inspection by the qualified person, found to no longer create a safety hazard.

(iii) - If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a safety hazard, the component needs to be monitored, the employer must ensure that the component is checked in the monthly inspections. Any such determination must be documented, and the documentation must be available to any individual who conducts a monthly inspection.

(3) - Post-erection inspection. In addition to the requirements in § 1926.1412(c), the following requirements must be met:

(i) - A load test using certified weights, or scaled weights using a certified scale with a current certificate of calibration, must be conducted after each erection.

(ii) - The load test must be conducted in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions when available. Where these instructions are unavailable, the test must be conducted in accordance with written load test procedures developed by a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved.

 

1926.1436 – Derricks

(c) - Construction.

(2) - Guy derricks.

(i) - The minimum number of guys must be 6, with equal spacing, except where a qualified person or derrick manufacturer approves variations from these requirements and revises the rated capacity to compensate for such variations.

(ii) - Guy derricks must not be used unless the employer has the following guy information from the manufacturer or a qualified person, when not available from the manufacturer:

(A) - The number of guys.

(B) - The spacing around the mast.

(C) - The size, grade, and construction of rope to be used for each guy.

(iii) - For guy derricks manufactured after December 18, 1970, in addition to the information required in paragraph (c)(2)(ii) of this section, the employer must have the following guy information from the manufacturer or a qualified person, when not available from the manufacturer:

(A) - The amount of initial sag or tension.

(B) - The amount of tension in guy line rope at anchor.

(d) - Anchoring and guying.

(1) - Load anchoring data developed by the manufacturer or a qualified person must be used.

(e) - Swingers and hoists.

(2) - Hoists.

(iii) - Repaired or modified hoists. Hoists that have had repairs, modifications or additions affecting their capacity or safe operation must be evaluated by a qualified person to determine if a load test is necessary. If it is, load testing must be conducted in accordance with paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) and (iv) of this section.

(iv) - Load test procedure. Load tests required by paragraphs (e)(2)(ii) or (e)(2)(iii) of this section must be conducted as follows:

(A) - The test load must be hoisted a vertical distance to assure that the load is supported by the hoist and held by the hoist brake(s).

(B) - The test load must be lowered, stopped and held with the brake(s).

(C) - The hoist must not be used unless a competent person determines that the test has been passed.

(f) - Operational aids.

(2) - Boom angle aid. A boom angle indicator is not required but if the derrick is not equipped with a functioning one, the employer must ensure that either:

(i) - The boom hoist cable must be marked with caution and stop marks. The stop marks must correspond to maximum and minimum allowable boom angles. The caution and stop marks must be in view of the operator, or a spotter who is in direct communication with the operator; or

(ii) - An electronic or other device that signals the operator in time to prevent the boom from moving past its maximum and minimum angles, or automatically prevents such movement, is used.

(g) - Post-assembly approval and testing--new or reinstalled derricks.

(1) - Anchorages.

(i) - Anchorages, including the structure to which the derrick is attached (if applicable), must be approved by a qualified person.

(ii) - If using a rock or hairpin anchorage, the qualified person must determine if any special testing of the anchorage is needed. If so, it must be tested accordingly.

(2) - Functional test. Prior to initial use, new or reinstalled derricks must be tested by a competent person with no hook load to verify proper operation. This test must include:

(i) - Lifting and lowering the hook(s) through the full range of hook travel.

(ii) - Raising and lowering the boom through the full range of boom travel.

(iii) - Swinging in each direction through the full range of swing.

(iv) - Actuating the anti two-block and boom hoist limit devices (if provided).

(v) - Actuating locking, limiting and indicating devices (if provided).

(3) - Load test. Prior to initial use, new or reinstalled derricks must be load tested by a competent person. The test load must meet the following requirements:

(i) - Test loads must be at least 100% and no more than 110% of the rated capacity, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer or qualified person, but in no event must the test load be less than the maximum anticipated load.

(ii) - The test must consist of:

(A) - Hoisting the test load a few inches and holding to verify that the load is supported by the derrick and held by the hoist brake(s).

(B) - Swinging the derrick, if applicable, the full range of its swing, at the maximum allowable working radius for the test load.

(C) - Booming the derrick up and down within the allowable working radius for the test load.

(D) - Lowering, stopping and holding the load with the brake(s).

(iii) - The derrick must not be used unless the competent person determines that the test has been passed.

(n) - The process of jumping the derrick must be supervised by the A/D director.

(o) - Derrick operations must be supervised by a competent person.

(q) - Qualification and Training. The employer must train each operator of a derrick on the safe operation of equipment the individual will operate. Section 1926.1427 of this subpart (Operator qualification and certification) does not apply.

 

1926.1437 – Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges.

(c) - Work area control.

(2) - The employer must either:

(i) - Erect and maintain control lines, warning lines, railings or similar barriers to mark the boundaries of the hazard areas; or

(ii) - Clearly mark the hazard areas by a combination of warning signs (such as, "Danger--Swing/Crush Zone") and high visibility markings on the equipment that identify the hazard areas. In addition, the employer must train each employee to understand what these markings signify.

(h) - Inspections.

Inspections. In addition to meeting the requirements of § 1926.1412 for inspecting the crane/derrick, the employer must inspect the barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation used to support a floating crane/derrick or land crane/derrick, and ensure that:

(3) - The shift and monthly inspections are conducted by a competent person, and:

(i) - If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination is made by a qualified person whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard.

(ii) - If the deficiency is determined to constitute a hazard, the vessel/flotation device is removed from service until the deficiency has been corrected.

(4) - Annual: external vessel/flotation device inspection. For each annual inspection:

(i) - The external portion of the barge, pontoons, vessel or other means of flotation used is inspected annually by a qualified person who has expertise with respect to vessels/flotation devices and that the inspection includes the following items:

(A) - The items identified in paragraphs (h)(1) (Shift) and (h)(2) (Monthly) of this section.

(B) - Cleats, bitts, chocks, fenders, capstans, ladders, and stanchions, for significant corrosion, wear, deterioration, or deformation that could impair the function of these items.

(C) - External evidence of leaks and structural damage; evidence of leaks and damage below the waterline may be determined through internal inspection of the vessel/flotation device.

(D) - Four-corner draft readings.

(E) - Firefighting equipment for serviceability.

(iii) - If any deficiency is identified, an immediate determination is made by the qualified person whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard or, though not yet a hazard, needs to be monitored in the monthly inspections.

(A) - If the qualified person determines that the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the vessel/flotation device is removed from service until it has been corrected. See requirements in § 1926.1417(f).

(B) - If the qualified person determines that, though not presently a hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the deficiency is checked in the monthly inspections.

(5) - Four-year: internal vessel/flotation device inspection. For each four-year inspection:

(i) - A marine engineer, marine architect, licensed surveyor, or other qualified person who has expertise with respect to vessels/flotation devices surveys the internal portion of the barge, pontoons, vessel, or other means of flotation.

(ii) - If the surveyor identifies a deficiency, an immediate determination is made by the surveyor as to whether the deficiency constitutes a hazard or, though not yet a hazard, needs to be monitored in the monthly or annual inspections, as appropriate.

(A) - If the surveyor determines that the deficiency constitutes a hazard, the vessel/flotation device is removed from service until it has been corrected.

(B) - If the surveyor determines that, though not presently a hazard, the deficiency needs to be monitored, the deficiency is checked in the monthly or annual inspections, as appropriate.

(k) - Manufacturer's specifications and limitations.

(3) - When the manufacturer's specifications and limitations are unavailable, the employer must ensure that the specifications and limitations established by a qualified person with respect to environmental, operational and in-transit loads for the barge, pontoons, vessel, or other means of flotation are not exceeded or violated.

(m) - Floating cranes/derricks. For equipment designed by the manufacturer (or employer) for marine use by permanent attachment to barges, pontoons, vessels or other means of flotation:

(4) - If the equipment is employer-made, it must not be used unless the employer has documents demonstrating that the load charts and applicable parameters for use meet the requirements of paragraphs (m)(1) through (3) of this section. Such documents must be signed by a registered professional engineer who is a qualified person with respect to the design of this type of equipment (including the means of flotation).

(n) - Land cranes/derricks. For land cranes/derricks used on barges, pontoons, vessels or other means of flotation, the employer must ensure that:

(2) - The rated capacity modification required in paragraph (n)(1) of this section is performed by the equipment manufacturer, or a qualified person who has expertise with respect to both land crane/derrick capacity and the stability of vessels/flotation devices.

(3) - For list and trim.

(ii) - The maximum allowable list and the maximum allowable trim for the land crane/derrick does not exceed the amount specified by the crane/derrick manufacturer, or, when, an amount is not so specified, the amount specified by the qualified person.

(5) - Physical attachment, corralling, rails system and centerline cable system meet the requirements in Option (1), Option (2), Option (3), or Option (4) of this section, and that whichever option is used also meets the requirements of paragraph (n)(5)(v) of this section.

(v) - The systems/means used to comply with Option (1), Option (2), Option (3), or Option (4) of this section are designed by a marine engineer, registered professional engineer familiar with floating crane/derrick design, or qualified person familiar with floating crane/derrick design.

(6) - Exception. For mobile auxiliary cranes used on the deck of a floating crane/derrick, the requirement specified by paragraph (n)(5) of this section to use Option (1), Option (2), Option (3), or Option (4) does not apply when the employer demonstrates implementation of a plan and procedures that meet the following requirements:

(i) - A marine engineer or registered professional engineer familiar with floating crane/derrick design develops and signs a written plan for the use of the mobile auxiliary crane.

(ii) - The plan is designed so that the applicable requirements of this section are met despite the position, travel, operation, and lack of physical attachment (or corralling, use of rails or cable system) of the mobile auxiliary crane.

(iii) - The plan specifies the areas of the deck where the mobile auxiliary crane is permitted to be positioned, travel, and operate, and the parameters and limitations of such movements and operation.

(iv) - The deck is marked to identify the permitted areas for positioning, travel, and operation.

(v) - The plan specifies the dynamic and environmental conditions that must be present for use of the plan.

(vi) - If the dynamic and environmental conditions in paragraph (n)(6)(v) of this section are exceeded, the mobile auxiliary crane is attached physically or corralled in accordance with Option (1),Option (2) or Option (4) of paragraph (n)(5) of this section.

 

1926.1440 - Sideboom cranes.

(a) - The provisions of this standard apply, except § 1926.1402 (Ground conditions), § 1926.1415 (Safety devices), § 1926.1416 (Operational aids), and § 1926.1427 (Operator qualification and certification).

(c) - Sideboom cranes mounted on wheel or crawler tractors must meet all of the following requirements of ASME B30.14-2004 (incorporated by reference, see § 1926.6):

(10) - In section 14-3.1.2 ("Operator Qualifications"), paragraph (a), except the phrase "When required by law."

 

1926.1441 - Equipment with a rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.

The following paragraphs of this section specify requirements for employers using equipment with a maximum rated hoisting/lifting capacity of 2,000 pounds or less.

(a) - The employer using this equipment must comply with the following provisions of this subpart: § 1926.1400 (Scope); § 1926.1401 (Definitions); § 1926.1402 (Ground conditions); § 1926.1403 (Assembly/disassembly--selection of manufacturer or employer procedures); § 1926.1406 (Assembly/disassembly--employer procedures); §§ 1926.1407 through 1926.1411 (Power line safety); § 1926.1412(c) (Post-assembly); §§ 1926.1413 through 1926.1414 (Wire rope); § 1926.1418 (Authority to stop operation); §§ 1926.1419 through 1926.1422 (Signals); § 1926.1423 (Fall protection); § 1926.1425 (Keeping clear of the load) (except for § 1926.1425(c)(3) (qualified rigger)); § 1926.1426 (Free fall and controlled load lowering); § 1926.1432 (Multiple crane/derrick lifts--supplemental requirements); § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications); § 1926.1435 (Tower cranes); § 1926.1436 (Derricks); § 1926.1437 (Floating cranes/derricks and land cranes/derricks on barges); § 1926.1438 (Overhead & gantry cranes).

(b) - Assembly/disassembly.

(2) - Components and configuration. The employer must ensure that:

(i) - The selection of components, and the configuration of the equipment, that affect the capacity or safe operation of the equipment complies with either the:

(A) - Manufacturer instructions, recommendations, limitations, and specifications. When these documents and information are unavailable, a registered professional engineer familiar with the type of equipment involved must approve, in writing, the selection and configuration of components; or

(B) - Approved modifications that meet the requirements of § 1926.1434 (Equipment modifications).

(c) - Operation--procedures.

(2) - Unavailable operation procedures. The employer must:

(i) - When the manufacturer's procedures are unavailable, develop, and ensure compliance with, all procedures necessary for the safe operation of the equipment and attachments.

(ii) - Ensure that procedures for the operational controls are developed by a qualified person.

(iii) - Ensure that procedures related to the capacity of the equipment are developed and signed by a registered professional engineer familiar with the equipment.

(e) - Operator qualifications. The employer must train each operator, prior to operating the equipment, on the safe operation of the type of equipment the operator will be using.

(f) - Signal person qualifications. The employer must train each signal person in the proper use of signals applicable to the use of the equipment.

(k) - Design. The employer must ensure that the equipment is designed by a qualified engineer.

 

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