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Asbestos - Construction
OSHA Training Requirements - Asbestos - Construction
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1926.1101 – Asbestos
(b) – Definitions Applicable to This Subpart
Certified Industrial Hygienist (CIH) means one certified in the practice of industrial hygiene by the American Board of Industrial Hygiene.
Competent person means, in addition to the definition in 29 CFR 1926.32 (f), one who is capable of identifying existing asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them, as specified in 29 CFR 1926.32(f): in addition, for Class I and Class II work who is specially trained in a training course which meets the criteria of EPA's Model Accreditation Plan (40 CFR 763) for supervisor, or its equivalent and, for Class III and Class IV work, who is trained in a manner consistent with EPA requirements for training of local education agency maintenance and custodial staff as set forth at 40 CFR 763.92 (a)(2).
Industrial hygienist means a professional qualified by education, training, and experience to anticipate, recognize, evaluate and develop controls for occupational health hazards.
Project Designer means a person who has successfully completed the training requirements for an abatement project designer established by 40 U.S.C. Sec. 763.90(g).
(d) - Multi-employer worksites.
(1) - On multi-employer worksites, an employer performing work requiring the establishment of a regulated area shall inform other employers on the site of the nature of the employer's work with asbestos and/or PACM, of the existence of and requirements pertaining to regulated areas, and the measures taken to ensure that employees of such other employers are not exposed to asbestos.
(5) - All general contractors on a construction project which includes work covered by this standard shall be deemed to exercise general supervisory authority over the work covered by this standard, even though the general contractor is not qualified to serve as the asbestos "competent person" as defined by paragraph (b) of this section. As supervisor of the entire project, the general contractor shall ascertain whether the asbestos contractor is in compliance with this standard, and shall require such contractor to come into compliance with this standard when necessary.
(e) – Regulated areas.
(6) - Competent Persons. The employer shall ensure that all asbestos work performed within regulated areas is supervised by a competent person, as defined in paragraph (b) of this section. The duties of the competent person are set out in paragraph (o) of this section.
(f) - Exposure assessments and monitoring.
(2) - Initial Exposure Assessment.
(i) - Each employer who has a workplace or work operation covered by this standard shall ensure that a "competent person" conducts an exposure assessment immediately before or at the initiation of the operation to ascertain expected exposures during that operation or workplace. The assessment must be completed in time to comply with requirements which are triggered by exposure data or the lack of a "negative exposure assessment," and to provide information necessary to assure that all control systems planned are appropriate for that operation and will work properly.
(iii) - Negative Exposure Assessment: For any one specific asbestos job which will be performed by employees who have been trained in compliance with the standard, the employer may demonstrate that employee exposures will be below the PELs by data which conform to the following criteria;
(A) - Objective data demonstrating that the product or material containing asbestos minerals or the activity involving such product or material cannot release airborne fibers in concentrations exceeding the TWA and excursion limit under those work conditions having the greatest potential for releasing asbestos; or
(B) - Where the employer has monitored prior asbestos jobs for the PEL and the excursion limit within 12 months of the current or projected job, the monitoring and analysis were performed in compliance with the asbestos standard in effect; and the data were obtained during work operations conducted under workplace conditions "closely resembling" the processes, type of material, control methods, work practices, and environmental conditions used and prevailing in the employer's current operations, the operations were conducted by employees whose training and experience are no more extensive than that of employees performing the current job, and these data show that under the conditions prevailing and which will prevail in the current workplace there is a high degree of certainty that employee exposures will not exceed the TWA and excursion limit; or
(C) - The results of initial exposure monitoring of the current job made from breathing zone air samples that are representative of the 8-hour TWA and 30-minute short-term exposures of each employee covering operations which are most likely during the performance of the entire asbestos job to result in exposures over the PELs.
(5) - Employee notification of monitoring results. The employer must, as soon as possible but no later than 5 working days after the receipt of the results of any monitoring performed under this section, notify each affected employee of these results either individually in writing or by posting the results in an appropriate location that is accessible to employees.
(i) - The employer shall notify affected employees of the monitoring results that represent that employee's exposure as soon as possible following receipt of monitoring results.
(ii) - The employer shall notify affected employees of the results of monitoring representing the employee's exposure in writing either individually or by posting at a centrally located place that is accessible to affected employees.
(6) - Observation of monitoring.
(i) - The employer shall provide affected employees and their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos conducted in accordance with this section.
(g) - Methods of compliance.
(4) - Class I Requirements. In addition to the provisions of paragraphs (g)(1) and (2) of this section, the following engineering controls and work practices and procedures shall be used.
(i) - All Class I work, including the installation and operation of the control system shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in paragraph (b) of this section;
(6) - Alternative control methods for Class I work. Class I work may be performed using a control method which is not referenced in paragraph (g)(5) of this section, or which modifies a control method referenced in paragraph (g)(5)of this section, if the following provisions are complied with:
(ii) - A certified industrial hygienist or licensed professional engineer who is also qualified as a project designer as defined in paragraph (b) of this section, shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls and shall certify in writing that the planned control method is adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under worst-case conditions of use, and that the planned control method will prevent asbestos contamination outside the regulated area, as measured by clearance sampling which meets the requirements of EPA's Asbestos in Schools rule issued under AHERA, or perimeter monitoring which meets the criteria in paragraph (g)(4)(ii)(B) of this section.
(A) - Where the TSI or surfacing material to be removed is 25 linear or 10 square feet or less , the evaluation required in paragraph (g)(6) of this section may be performed by a "competent person", and may omit consideration of perimeter or clearance monitoring otherwise required.
(7) - Work Practices and Engineering Controls for Class II work.
(i) - All Class II work shall be supervised by a competent person as defined in paragraph (b) of this section.
(8) - Additional Controls for Class II work. Class II asbestos work shall also be performed by complying with the work practices and controls designated for each type of asbestos work to be performed, set out in this paragraph. Where more than one control method may be used for a type of asbestos work, the employer may choose one or a combination of designated control methods. Class II work also may be performed using a method allowed for Class I work, except that glove bags and glove boxes are allowed if they fully enclose the Class II material to be removed.
(vi) - Alternative Work Practices and Controls. Instead of the work practices and controls listed in paragraph (g)(8)(i) through (v) of this section, the employer may use different or modified engineering and work practice controls if the following provisions are complied with.
(B) - A competent person shall evaluate the work area, the projected work practices and the engineering controls, and shall certify in writing, that the different or modified controls are adequate to reduce direct and indirect employee exposure to below the PELs under all expected conditions of use and that the method meets the requirements of this standard. The evaluation shall include and be based on data representing employee exposure during the use of such method under conditions which closely resemble the conditions under which the method is to be used for the current job, and by employees whose training and experience are equivalent to employees who are to perform the current job.
(11) - Alternative methods of compliance for installation, removal, repair, and maintenance of certain roofing and pipeline coating materials. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, an employer who complies with all provisions of this paragraph (g)(11) when installing, removing, repairing, or maintaining intact pipeline asphaltic wrap, or roof flashings which contain asbestos fibers encapsulated or coated by bituminous or resinous compounds shall be deemed to be in compliance with this section. If an employer does not comply with all provisions of this paragraph (g)(11) or if during the course of the job the material does not remain intact, the provisions of paragraph (g)(8) of this section apply instead of this paragraph (g)(11).
(i) - Before work begins and as needed during the job, a competent person who is capable of identifying asbestos hazards in the workplace and selecting the appropriate control strategy for asbestos exposure, and who has the authority to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate such hazards, shall conduct an inspection of the worksite and determine that the roofing material is intact and will likely remain intact.
(ii) - All employees performing work covered by this paragraph (g)(11) shall be trained in a training program that meets the requirements of paragraph (k)(9)(viii) of this section.
(h) - Respiratory protection.
(2) - Respirator program.
(i) - The employer must implement a respiratory protection program in accordance with § 1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (f) through (m), which covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator.
(i) - Protective clothing.
(2) - Laundering.
(ii) - Any employer who gives contaminated clothing to another person for laundering shall inform such person of the requirement in paragraph (i)(2)(i) of this section to effectively prevent the release of airborne asbestos in excess of the TWA and excursion limit prescribed in paragraph (c) of this section.
(4) - Inspection of protective clothing.
(i) - The competent person shall examine work-suits worn by employees at least once per work-shift for rips or tears that may occur during performance of work.
(j) - Communication of hazards to employees -- Introduction. This section applies to the communication of information concerning asbestos hazards in general industry to facilitate compliance with this standard. Asbestos exposure in general industry occurs in a wide variety of industrial and commercial settings. Employees who manufacture asbestos-containing products may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Employees who repair and replace automotive brakes and clutches may be exposed to asbestos fibers. In addition, employees engaged in housekeeping activities in industrial facilities with asbestos product manufacturing operations, and in public and commercial buildings with installed asbestos containing materials may be exposed to asbestos fibers. Most of these workers are covered by this general industry standard, with the exception of state or local governmental employees in non-state plan states. It should be noted that employees who perform housekeeping activities during and after construction activities are covered by the asbestos construction standard, 29 CFR 1926.1101, formerly 1926.58. However, housekeeping employees, regardless of industry designation, should know whether building components they maintain may expose them to asbestos. The same hazard communication provisions will protect employees who perform housekeeping operations in all three asbestos standards; general industry, construction, and shipyard employment. As noted in the construction standard, building owners are often the only and/or best source of information concerning the presence of previously installed asbestos containing building materials. Therefore they, along with employers of potentially exposed employees, are assigned specific information conveying and retention duties under this section.
(2) - Duties of building and facility owners.
(ii) - Building and/or facility owners shall notify the following persons of the presence, location and quantity of ACM or PACM, at the work sites in their buildings and facilities. Notification either shall be in writing, or shall consist of a personal communication between the owner and the person to whom notification must be given or their authorized representatives:
(B) - Employees of the owner who will work in or adjacent to areas containing such material:
(C) - On multi-employer worksites, all employers of employees who will be performing work within or adjacent to areas containing such materials;
(3) - Duties of employers whose employees perform work subject to this standard in or adjacent to areas containing ACM and PACM. Building/facility owners whose employees perform such work shall comply with these provisions to the extent applicable.
(ii) - Before work under this standard is performed employers of employees who will perform such work shall inform the following persons of the location and quantity of ACM and/or PACM present in the area and the precautions to be taken to insure that airborne asbestos is confined to the area.
(B) - Employees who will perform such work and employers of employees who work and/or will be working in adjacent areas.
(iii) - Within 10 days of the completion of such work, the employer whose employees have performed work subject to this standard, shall inform the building/facility owner and employers of employees who will be working in the area of the current location and quantity of PACM and/or ACM remaining in the area and final monitoring results, if any.
(4) - In addition to the above requirements, all employers who discover ACM and/or PACM on a worksite shall convey information concerning the presence, location and quantity of such newly discovered ACM and/or PACM to the owner and to other employers of employees working at the work site, within 24 hours of the discovery.
(5) – Criteria to rebut the designation of installed material as PACM.
(iii) - The employer and/or building owner may demonstrate that flooring material including associated mastic and backing does not contain asbestos, by a determination of an industrial hygienist based upon recognized analytical techniques showing that the material is not ACM.
(7) - Employee information and training.
(i) - The employer shall train each employee who is exposed to airborne concentrations of asbestos at or above the PEL and/or excursion limit in accordance with the requirements of this section. The employer shall institute a training program and ensure employee participation in the program.
(ii) - Training shall be provided prior to or at the time of initial assignment and at least annually thereafter.
(iii) - The training program shall be conducted in a manner which the employee is able to understand. The employer shall ensure that each employee is informed of the following:
(A) - The health effects associated with asbestos exposure;
(B) - The relationship between smoking and exposure to asbestos producing lung cancer:
(C) - The quantity, location, manner of use, release, and storage of asbestos, and the specific nature of operations which could result in exposure to asbestos;
(D) - The engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;
(E) - The specific procedures implemented to protect employees from exposure to asbestos, such as appropriate work practices, emergency and clean-up procedures, and personal protective equipment to be used;
(F) - The purpose, proper use, and limitations of respirators and protective clothing, if appropriate;
(G) - The purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program required by paragraph (l) of this section;
(H) - The content of this standard, including appendices.
(I) - The names, addresses and phone numbers of public health organizations which provide information, materials, and/or conduct programs concerning smoking cessation. The employer may distribute the list of such organizations contained in Appendix I to this section, to comply with this requirement.
(J) - The requirements for posting signs and affixing labels and the meaning of the required legends for such signs and labels.
(iv) - The employer shall also provide, at no cost to employees who perform housekeeping operations in an area which contains ACM or PACM, an asbestos awareness training course, which shall at a minimum contain the following elements: health effects of asbestos, locations of ACM and PACM in the building/facility, recognition of ACM and PACM damage and deterioration, requirements in this standard relating to housekeeping, and proper response to fiber release episodes, to all employees who perform housekeeping work in areas where ACM and/or PACM is present. Each such employee shall be so trained at least once a year.
(v) - Access to information and training materials.
(A) - The employer shall make a copy of this standard and its appendices readily available without cost to all affected employees.
(B) - The employer shall provide, upon request, all materials relating to the employee information and training program to the Assistant Secretary and the training program to the Assistant Secretary and the Director.
(C) - The employer shall inform all employees concerning the availability of self-help smoking cessation program material. Upon employee request, the employer shall distribute such material, consisting of NIH Publication No. 89-1647, or equivalent self-help material, which is approved or published by a public health organization listed in Appendix I to this section.
(m) – Recordkeeping.
(4) - Training. The employer shall maintain all employee training records for one (1) year beyond the last date of employment of that employee.
(n) - Observation of monitoring.
(1) - Employee observation. The employer shall provide affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to observe any monitoring of employee exposure to asbestos conducted in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.